Vesicoureteral VU reflux is the reverse/ backward flow of the urine from the bladder through the ureter to the kidney due to a small non- functioning valve. Vesico means bladder, ureteral means ureter. Reflux is a silent problem and hence a bit tricky to diagnose.
Types & Causes :
- Cogenital- From birth (Prenatal).
- Kidney damage.
- Gender: Girls are highly susceptible.
- Fair skinned children are highly susceptible.
- Abnormal attachment of ureter to bladder.
- Ballooned/ dilated kidney.
- Mild To Moderate VU Reflux:
- Abdominal aches.
- Urinary incontinence.
- Abdominal discomfort.
- Severe VU Reflux:
- Congestive heart failure.
- Renal failure.
Diagnosis Tests :
- Urine analysis.
- Urine culture.
- VCUG Voiding cystourethrography.
- PVR Post- void residual.
- DMSA scan.
- Renal ultrasound.
- Imaging tests.
- Grade I: Non- dilated ureter reflux.
- Grade II: Non- dilated renal calyces/ pelvis reflux.
- Grade III: Mild to moderate dilation/ fornices blunting reflux.
- Grade IV: Dilation of & moderate ureteral tortuosity reflux.
- Grade V: Gross dilation of calyces/ pelvis/ ureter, pelvis, ureteral tortuosity, papillary impressions loss.
- Low grade reflux:
- VUR ie Vesicoureteral reflux.
- Medical treatment.
- Reflux nephropathy.
- High Grade Relux:
- Surgery treatment.
- Intravesical/ extravesical open antireflux surgery (reconstruction of UV junction).
- Endoscopic antireflux surgery.
- Prophylactic antibiotics
- Anticholinergic medication.
- Cephalosporin medication.
- New scars.
- Obstructive renal growth.
Prevention & Precaution is Better than Cure:
Regularly monitor bladder/ kidney functions.
All above, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient.