The urinary system, with kidneys as the major organ, is responsible for elimination of toxic waste from the body and thus also maintaining the chemicals-water balance. Sometimes, more often in men than in women, the excess salts and minerals like calcium, sodium, phosphate, etc. become solidified and formed into stone-like, hard, crystaline structures. Such stone disease is one of the most prevalent urological disorders. The conditions of stones in the ureters or urinary tract are known as Ureterolithiasis.
Causes Of Stone:
- Gender: Male are more susceptible than women.
- Age: Common after the age of 40.
- Region: Asians and Caucasians are more susceptible.
- Weather: People living in hot and dry areas are more susceptible.
- Hereditary metabolic abnormalities.
- Neurogenic bladder.
- Urinary tract infection.
- Inflammatory bowel syndrome.
- Low intake of fluids.
- Over exertion.
- Gout/ Cystinuria/ Hyperparathyroidism/ Renal tubular acidosis.
- Hypercalciuria/ hyperoxaluria/ cystinuria.
- High Blood Pressure.
- Hyperuricemia: High uric acid levels.
- High deposits of calcium/ phosphate/ oxalate.
- High amounts of uric acid, magnesium/ ammonium/ amino acid/ cystine.
- Ostomy surgery.
- Intestinal bypass.
- Side effect of HIV treatment durg.
- Side effect of diuretics, antacids with high calcium.
- High consumption of animal protein, salt, proteins, vitamin D, oxalate
- Low consumption of dietary calcium.
Types Of Urinary Stone:
- Calcium stones.
- Uric acid stones.
- Small & smooth.
- Ragged, broken, pointed.
- Large golf ball size.
Ureter Stone Symptoms:
- Problematic urination.
- Reduced volumes of urine.
- Penile/ testicular aches.
- Occurrence of blood in the urine.
- Urgency of urination.
- Frequent fevers.
- Occasional chills.
- A fluctuating pain in the lower back, groin, or abdomen area.
Ureteral Stone Diagnosis:
- Urine Analysis.
- Blood test.
- Imaging tests:
- Helical CT scans.
- Ultrasound test for pregnant women.
Ureteral Stone Treatment :
- Kidney stone size based treatment:
- Recommended high intake of fluids help the stones pass within 48 hours, out of the body.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Vitamin and supplements.
- Medium sized stones: (9mm to 10mm)
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy [PCNL]
- Ureterorenoscopic Lithotripsy
- D J stenting
- Anatrophic nephrolithotomy
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Alpha blockers.
- Lithotripsy- Shock waves.
Prevention & Precaution is Better than Cure:
- Regular check-up and tests.
- Healthy balanced meals.
- High intake of water.
- Certain dietary changes:
- Foods to avoid: oxalate-rich foods like spinach, peanuts, rhubarb, wheat germ.
- Avoid tofu, tea, coffee, beans, berries, oranges, sweet potato.
- Avoid fatty foods.
- High intake of fibrous foods.
All above, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient.