Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic Surgery for Re-Constructive Urology

Laparoscopic surgery is a specialized technique for performing surgery which is minimally invasive. In traditional “open” surgery the surgeon uses a single incision to enter into the abdomen. Laparoscopic surgery uses several 0.5-1cm incisions to insert trochars which facilitates the passing of camera. As a result, the surgeon is able to look at detailed images of the affected area on the monitor.
In case of infections/ inflammation/ unclear view, slightly larger incisions may be recommended.

How Safe Is Laparoscopic Surgery:

As safe as traditional open surgeries.

Diagnosis:

This procedure uses a thin, lighted tube through which a doctor can look at the ovaries and other pelvic organs and tissues in the area. The tube is inserted through a small incision (cut) in the lower abdomen and sends the images of the pelvis or abdomen to a video monitor. Laparoscopy provides a view of organs that can help plan surgery or other treatments and can help doctors confirm the stage (how far the tumor has spread) of the cancer. Also, doctors can manipulate small instruments through the laparoscopic incision(s) to perform biopsies.

Diagnosis:

It’s often possible to diagnose a condition using non-invasive methods, such as an ultrasound scan, a computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Sometimes, however, the only way to confirm a diagnosis is to directly study the affected part of the body using a laparoscope.
Laparoscopy can also be used to diagnose certain types of cancers. In such cases, the laparoscope is used to obtain a sample of suspected cancerous tissue, so that it can be sent to a laboratory for testing. This is known as a biopsy.

Cancers that can be diagnosed using laparoscopy include:

  • liver cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • ovarian cancer
  • cancer of the bile duct
  • cancer of the gallbladder

Treatment:

Laparoscopic surgery can be used to treat a number of different conditions, including:
removing some or all of an organ that has been affected by cancer, such as the ovaries, prostate, liver, colon, kidney or bladder

Laparoscopic Surgery Side Effects:

Minor complications
It is estimated that minor complications occur in one or two out of every 100 cases, following laparoscopy. They include:

  • post-operative infection
  • minor bleeding and bruising around the incision
  • feeling sick and vomiting

Serious complications
Serious complications after laparoscopy are rare, occurring in one out of every 1,000 cases, it is estimated. These include:

  • damage to an organ, such as your bowel or bladder, which could result in the loss of organ function
  • damage to a major artery
  • complications arising from the use of carbon dioxide during the procedure, such as the gas bubbles entering your veins or arteries
  • a serious allergic reaction to the general anaesthetic
  • a blood clot developing in a vein, usually in one of the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), which can break off and block the blood flow in one of the blood vessels in the lungs (pulmonary embolism)

Further surgery is often required to treat many of these more serious complications.

Advantages Of Laparoscopic Surgery:

Compared to traditional open surgery, patients often experience less pain, a shorter recovery, and less scarring with laparoscopic surgery.

Recovery:

For a few days after the procedure, you’re likely to feel some pain and discomfort where the incisions were made, and you may also have a sore throat if a breathing tube was used. You will be given painkilling medication to help ease the pain.
Some of the gas used to inflate your abdomen can remain inside your abdomen after the procedure, which can cause:

  • bloating
  • cramps
  • shoulder pain, as the gas can irritate your diaphragm (the muscle you use to breathe), which in turn can irritate nerve endings in your shoulder

These symptoms are nothing to worry about and should pass after a day or so, once your body has absorbed the remaining gas.
In the days or weeks after the procedure, you will probably feel more tired than usual, as your body is using a lot of energy to heal itself. Taking regular naps may help.

Follow- up:

It’s usually recommended that someone stays with you for the first 24 hours after surgery. This is in case you experience any symptoms that suggest there could be a problem, such as:

  • a high temperature of 38°C (100.4°F) or above
  • Chills
  • increasing abdominal pain
  • redness, pain, swelling and discharge around your wounds
  • pain and swelling in one of your legs
  • a burning or stinging sensation when urinating

If you experience any of these symptoms, immediately contact your Urologist.