Kidney Stone

What Is Kidney Stone?

A kidney stone is basically formed as a hard, stone-like crystalline mineral substance formed due to the salts and other minerals like calcium, sodium, phosphate, etc. inside the kidney. This condition is known as Nephrolithiasis. The size can vary from sugar crystal to a small ball.

What Causes Kidney Stones:

  • Gender: Male are more susceptible than women.
  • Region: Asians and Caucasians are more susceptible.
  • Weather: People living in hot and dry areas are more susceptible.
  • Hereditary.
  • Hereditary metabolic abnormalities.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Neurogenic bladder.
  • Urinary tract infection.
  • Inflammatory bowel syndrome.
  • Low intake of fluids.
  • Over exertion.
  • Gout/ Cystinuria/ Hyperparathyroidism/ Renal tubular acidosis.
  • Hypercalciuria/ hyperoxaluria/ cystinuria.
  • Diabetes.
  • High Blood Pressure.
  • Hyperuricemia: High uric acid levels.
  • High deposits of calcium/ phosphate/ oxalate.
  • High amounts of uric acid, magnesium/ ammonium/ amino acid/ cystine.
  • Ostomy surgery.
  • Intestinal bypass.
  • Side effect of HIV treatment durg.
  • Side effect of diuretics, antacids with high calcium.
  • High consumption of animal protein, salt, proteins, vitamin D, oxalate
  • Low consumption of dietary calcium.

Kidney Stone Types:

  • Substance:
  • Calcium stones.
  • Uric acid stones.
  • Structure:
  • Small & smooth.
  • Ragged, broken, pointed.
  • Large golf ball size.

Kidney Stone Symptoms:

  • Problematic urination.
  • Reduced volumes of urine.
  • Penile/ testicular aches.
  • Occurrence of blood in the urine.
  • Urgency of urination.
  • Frequent fevers.
  • Occasional chills.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • A fluctuating pain in the lower back, groin, or abdomen area.

Kidney Stone Diagnosis:

  • X-ray.
  • Urine Analysis.
  • Blood test.
  • Imaging tests:
  • Helical CT scans.
  • Ultrasound test for pregnant women.

Kidney Stone Treatment:

Kidney stone size based treatment:

  • Recommended high intake of fluids help the stones pass within 48 hours, out of the body.
  • Medication.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Vitamin and supplements.
  • Medium sized stones: (9mm to 10mm)
  • Blockers like:
  • Calcium channel blockers.
  • Alpha blockers.
  • Lithotripsy- Shock waves.
  • Ureteroscopy.

Prevention & Precaution is Better than Cure:

  • Regular check-up and tests.
  • Healthy balanced meals.
  • High intake of water.
  • Certain dietary changes:
  • Foods to avoid: oxalate-rich foods like spinach, peanuts, rhubarb, wheat germ.
  • Avoid tofu, tea, coffee, beans, berries, oranges, sweet potato.
  • Avoid fatty foods.
  • High intake of fibrous foods.

All above, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient.