Kidney Failure

Renal treatment is needed when there is renal failure/Kidney failure. There is not one but many treatment options in case of renal ie kidney failure. Any treatment you choose will have its advantages and disadvantages, and the treatment you choose will have a big impact on your daily routine life. So, it is best to make an informed choice about the treatment that suits you the best, with the advice and suggestion of your urologist.
Some of the renal treatment options include hemo-dialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, etc.

Length Of The Treatment:

Time of the treatment depends on the choice of treatment.

Types Of Renal Failure:

  • Acute Renal Failure:
  • When there is a sudden drop I the kidney function.
  • This is very short-lived but can lead to long-lasting/ permanent damage.
  • Chronic Renal Disease:
  • The renal/ kidney functioning worsens over a period of time, maybe a certain number of years.

Causes Of Kidney Failure:

  • Accident.
  • Injuries.
  • Coronary heart disease/ heart failure.
  • Heart-bypass surgery.
  • Complications from other surgeries.
  • Crush syndrome: Over-intoxication in the body.
  • Ischemia.
  • Inflammatory kidney- glomerulonephritis.
  • Polycystic (larger kidney due to slow growth of cysts masses) kidney syndrome.
  • Kidney infection- pyelonephritis.
  • High Blood pressure.
  • Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.
  • Abnormal kidney development in the feotus or post birth.
  • Use of medicines like lithium for a long-term.
  • Long-term use of ibuprofen/ aspirin, etc.
  • Abuse of NSAID’s- anti-inflammatory, non-steroidal drugs.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Prostate diseases.
  • Immune system kidney attack- systemic lupus erythematosus.

Kidney Failure Diagnosis :

  • Renal disease is recommended after the following diagnosis tests.
  • Physical exam.
  • Urine tests.
  • Blood test for creatinine/ Bun/ GFR- glomelural filtration rate.
  • Medical history.
  • X-ray.
  • CT scan.
  • MRI scan.
  • Cystoscopy.

Kidney Failure Symptoms:

  • Building of harmful wastes in the body.
  • Short breath/ Weakness.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Lethargy.
  • Confusion/ lower alertness levels.
  • Hypertension- high blood pressure.
  • Poor appetite/ Sudden weight loss.
  • Occurrence of blood/ protein (detected in urine test)in the urine.
  • Frequent urge to urinate specially at nights.
  • Inability to remove potassium from the bloodstream may lead to abnormal heart rhythms
  • insomnia
  • Erectile-dysfunction in men (ie inability to maintain/ get an erection)
  • Occasional chills.
  • Frequent fevers.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • A fluctuating pain in the lower back, groin, or abdomen area.
  • Swelling due to water retention in feet, hands or ankles.

Preparation:

  • Slush Preparation:
  • Slush needs to be used immediately after the renal vasculature occlusion.
  • Some Dry ice is contained in a large basin with an empty stainless steel bowl fixed in the centre of the basin, so that the bowl is entirely surrounded with dry ice, up to its rim.
  • A saline solution is poured in the bowl, once it becomes frosty, and the solution is stirred for 4 to 5 minutes.
  • Thus, slush is formed.
  • In order to, trap the stones, Coagulum is prepared without the use of Thrombin.
  • Venous/ Arterial Isolation is performed by the use of a bulldog vascular clamp.

Kidney Failure Treatment Options:

  • Kidney Transplantation:
  • A kidney transplant is the transfer of a healthy kidney from one person (the donor) into the body of a person who has little or no kidney function (the recipient).
  • Hemo-dialysis:
  • Kidneys are replaced with a machine that takes over the kidney functions.
  • Not recommended for diabetic patients, and patients with heart problems and high blood pressure.
  • This dialysis requisites a normal access to the bloodstream.
  • At home:
  • Special plumbing s installed in the patient’s house.
  • Training given to caregiver and family members to ensure proper dialysis.
  • At Health-care facility:
  • All the set-up is ready for dialysis. Nocturnal dialysis is also an option at some facilities.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis:
  • The bloodstream is allowed to be cleansed inside the body using peritoneal membrane filter located near the abdomen.
  • A special peritoneal catheter is used to transfer dialysis fluid into and out of the peritoneal cavity.
  • Not recommended for patients who have had abdominal surgery, who are obese or very tall.
  • Usually performed at home.
  • Refusing or Withdrawing from Treatment: (Palliative Care)
  • Supportive/ conservative treatment is recommended for patients refusing active treatment.
  • This will limit the life-span of the patient.
  • Urologist will prescribe certain medications for a healthy life.

Factors Influencing Your Treatment Choice

  • Medical advice and health.
  • Lifestyle.
  • Personal preference.
  • Finances.
  • Distance of the facility.
  • Availability of resources.

Risks:

  • The renal treatment risks include:
  • Disruption in the daily schedule.
  • Movement restrictions during dialysis.
  • Continuous treatment needed.
  • Kidney Transplant:
  • System rejecting the kidney.
  • Weakened immune system due to immuno-suppressants.
  • Rise in other infections
  • Acidity.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Diabetes.
  • Long-term intake of drugs can lead to liver/ kidney damage.

Follow- up:

  • It’s usually recommended that someone stays with you for the first 24 hours after surgery. This is in case you experience any symptoms.
  • Hospital stay depends on the treatments chosen.
  • Avoid smoking/ alcohol.
  • Switch to a low-fat/ balanced diet.
  • Adapt a healthy lifestyle and a strict diet.
  • Visit doctor regularly for check-ups.

All above, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient. Only a well experienced urologist should perform the above treatment.