Bladder Cancer

what is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer is a cancer initiates in the lining of the walls of the urinary bladder which stores the urine and release urine through the urinary tract.

Beware:

Some commonly known causes that increases the susceptibility to kidney cancer.

  • Smoking cigars, cigarettes, hokaahs, etc makes one doubly susceptible.
  • Chronic Bladder Infection.
  • Males are on the higher side of susceptibility than females.
  • Lack of personal hygiene.
  • Occupations at risk are Dye, rubber, aluminium and leather workers, bus/truck drivers, rubber workers, motor mechanics, blacksmiths, machine setters, pesticide applicators are at the highest risk.
  • Side effect of Chemotherapy drug Cytoxan can be a cause.
  • Radiation treatment of cervical cancer treatment, in women, can increase the risk.

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When to approach your Urologist?:

Some commonly known symptoms:

  • Pain in lower abdomen.
  • Sudden weight loss.
  • Urinary incontinence (frequent urination sensation)
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Early fatigue.
  • Bone pain.
  • Painful, burning sensation during urination
  • Urge to urinate but no unableto pass urine.

Types of Bladder Cancer:

1) Urothelial or Transitional Cell Carcinoma:
The innermost lining of the bladder wall/ urinary tract is formed of these transitional cells, which can cause cancer due to their abnormal growth.
2) Squamous cell carcinoma:
Thin flat newly formed cells develop on the outer linings of bladder wall/ urinary tract in case of persistent inflammation/ irritation in the bladder.
3)Adenocarcinoma:
Cancer cells initiate in the adrenal glands spread out to nearby organs.
All above cancers are further classified as:

  • Papillary tumors: Attached to stalk and wart-like appearance. Most common.
  • Nonpapillary (sessile) tumors: Flat appearance, uncommon, malignant.

 Bladder Cancer Diagnosis:

  • Urinalysis.
  • Urine cytology.
  • Cystoscopy
  • CT scan

Stages & Treatment:

  • Stage 0: Cancer cells limited to lining of bladder.
  • Stage I: Cancer cells grown deep into lining of bladder.

Treatment:

  • Surgery for tumor removal, without removing the rest of the bladder.
  • Direct bladder- placed chemotherapy/ immunotherapy.
  • Stage II: Cancer cells cross the lining and spread onto the muscular walls of the bladder.
  • Stage III: Tumor has spread to any one of the following:
    Pelvis wall/belly.
    A nearby lymph node.
    Nearby organs uterus, prostate, vagina causing abnormal kidney & bowel functions.
  • Stage IV: Cancer cells spread out to other organs in the body like liver, lungs, bones.
  • Recurrent cancer:
    Reoccurance of cancers in kidney or any other part of the body, after treatment.

Treatment For Bladder Cancer:

Surgery:
For removal of infected part of the bladder, post surgery chemotherapy/radiation.
Removal of the entire bladder (radical cystectomy), also nearby lymph nodes.
Shrinking the tumor cells prior to surgery, using chemotherapy.
Combine radiation and chemotherapy.
Stage IV: Mostly incurable, chemotherapy can be attempted.

Types Of Bladder Cancer Surgery:

  • Transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB).
  • Radical cystectomy.
  • Ileal conduit.
  • Continent urinary reservoir.
  • Orthotopic Neobladde.

At all above stages, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient.

Aternative Therapies:
Acupunture, nutritional & mind-body healing, etc.
Regular follow-up with your is utmost important post-treatment.